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Wednesday, August 24, 2016

The Tactical Blog from Cactus Tactical

Weapons of the War in Afghanistan: Rotary-wing Aircraft, Part III

Weapons of the War in Afghanistan


In the world of war, weapons and technology are ever changing, each war is characterized by the weapons and tactics used to fight it. As new environments and enemies are encountered, the parties to those wars develop new - more effective tactics, technologies, and weapons to counter and defeat their adversaries. The ingenuity seen in war has existed since (and most certainly before) the first wars of recorded history and continue to this very day. 


Keeping with that theory, let’s take a look at the weapons that have characterized the wars and conflicts that the United States has been a party to over the course of it’s history. During the course of this series, I aim to breakdown the weapons used in each conflict by their classification, and to which party they were employed by. Having served in combat operations in Afghanistan’s Korengal Valley, I would like to start our series with the War in Afghanistan. 


For our tenth installment let's take a look at the most common rotary-wing aircraft of the war in Afghanistan. These can be anything from supply to transport to attack helicopters. Rotary-wing aircraft play a major role in the war in Afghanistan, and the war could not be effectively fought without them.





The United States

CH-53E Super Stallion

The Sikorsky CH-53E Super Stallion is the largest and heaviest helicopter in the United States military. As the Sikorsky S-80 it was developed from the CH-53 Sea Stallion, mainly by adding a third engine, adding a seventh blade to the main rotor and canting the tail rotor 20 degrees. It was built by Sikorsky Aircraft for the United States Marine Corps. The less common MH-53E Sea Dragon fills the United States Navy's need for long range minesweeping or Airborne Mine Countermeasures (AMCM) missions, and perform heavy-lift duties for the Navy. Under development is the CH-53K King Stallion, which will be equipped with new engines, new composite material rotor blades, and a wider aircraft cabin.

The CH-53E can transport up to 55 troops or 30,000 lb of cargo and can carry external slung loads up to 36,000 lb. The Super Stallion has a cruise speed of 173 mph and a range of 621 miles. The helicopter is fitted with a forward extendable in-flight refueling probe and it can also hoist hose refuel from a surface ship while in hover mode. It can carry three machine guns: one at the starboard side crew door; one at the port window, just behind the copilot; and one at the tail ramp. The CH-53E also has chaff-flare dispensers.




UH-1Y Venom

The Bell UH-1Y Venom (also called Super Huey) is a twin-engine, medium-sized utility helicopter, built by Bell Helicopter as part of the United States Marine Corps' H-1 upgrade program. The helicopter is also called Yankee for its variant letter, Y.

The UH-1Y is currently in full-rate production to replace the USMC's aging fleet of UH-1N Twin Huey light utility helicopters first introduced in the early 1970s. The UH-1Y was to have been remanufactured from UH-1Ns, but in 2005, it was approved for the aircraft to be built as new.

The UH-1Y variant modernizes the UH-1 design. Its most noticeable upgrade over previous variants is a four-blade, all-composite rotor system designed to withstand up to 23 mm rounds. A 21-inch (530 mm) insert just forward of the main door has been installed for more capacity. The UH-1Y features upgraded engines and transmission, a digital cockpit with flat panel multifunctional displays, and an 84% parts commonality with the AH-1Z. Compared to the UH-1N, the Y-model has increased payload, almost 50% greater range, a reduction in vibration, and higher cruise speed.






V-22 Osprey

The Bell Boeing V-22 Osprey is an American multi-mission, tiltrotor military aircraft with both vertical takeoff and landing (VTOL), and short takeoff and landing (STOL) capabilities. It is designed to combine the functionality of a conventional helicopter with the long-range, high-speed cruise performance of a turboprop aircraft.

The V-22 originated from the United States Department of Defense Joint-service Vertical take-off/landing Experimental (JVX) aircraft program started in 1981. The team of Bell Helicopter and Boeing Helicopters was awarded a development contract in 1983 for the tiltrotor aircraft. The Bell Boeing team jointly produce the aircraft. The V-22 first flew in 1989, and began flight testing and design alterations; the complexity and difficulties of being the first tiltrotor intended for military service in the world led to many years of development.

The United States Marine Corps began crew training for the Osprey in 2000, and fielded it in 2007; it supplemented and then replaced their Boeing Vertol CH-46 Sea Knights. The Osprey's other operator, the U.S. Air Force, fielded their version of the tiltrotor in 2009. Since entering service with the U.S. Marine Corps and Air Force, the Osprey has been deployed in transportation and medevac operations over Iraq, Afghanistan, Libya and Kuwait.




AAF / ACF Fighters

None














Shawn Garlow in the Korengal Valley, Kunar Province, Afghanistan.










For more info on these and other weapons
Technical specs compiled from:
http://armypubs.army.mil/doctrine/Active_FM.html
http://world.guns.ru/index-e.html
https://en.wikipedia.org
http://www.militaryfactory.com/smallarms/



For Use of Photos by Shawn Garlow
Contact: garlow.co@gmail.com

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Nordic Components by Cactus Tactical

Monday, August 15, 2016

The Tactical Blog from Cactus Tactical

Weapons of the War in Afghanistan: Rotary-wing Aircraft, Part II

Weapons of the War in Afghanistan

In the world of war, weapons and technology are ever changing, each war is characterized by the weapons and tactics used to fight it. As new environments and enemies are encountered, the parties to those wars develop new - more effective tactics, technologies, and weapons to counter and defeat their adversaries. The ingenuity seen in war has existed since (and most certainly before) the first wars of recorded history and continue to this very day. 


Keeping with that theory, let’s take a look at the weapons that have characterized the wars and conflicts that the United States has been a party to over the course of it’s history. During the course of this series, I aim to breakdown the weapons used in each conflict by their classification, and to which party they were employed by. Having served in combat operations in Afghanistan’s Korengal Valley, I would like to start our series with the War in Afghanistan. 

For our tenth installment let's take a look at the most common rotary-wing aircraft of the war in Afghanistan. These can be anything from supply to transport to attack helicopters. Rotary-wing aircraft play a major role in the war in Afghanistan, and the war could not be effectively fought without them.




The United States


AH-1 SuperCobra

The Bell AH-1 SuperCobra is a twin-engine attack helicopter based on the United States Army's AH-1 Cobra. The twin Cobra family includes the AH-1J SeaCobra, the AH-1T Improved SeaCobra, and the AH-1W SuperCobra. The AH-1W is the backbone of the United States Marine Corps's attack helicopter fleet, but is being replaced in service by the Bell AH-1Z Viper.

AH-1 Cobras continue to operate with the U.S. Marine Corps. USMC Cobras served in Operation Enduring Freedom in Afghanistan and in Operation Iraqi Freedom in the conflict in Iraq. While new replacement aircraft were considered as an alternative to major upgrades of the AH-1 fleet, Marine Corps studies showed that an upgrade was the most affordable, most supportable and most effective solution for the Marine Corps light attack helicopter mission.

Possible Armament:
  • 20 mm M197 3-barreled Gatling cannon in the A/A49E-7 turret (750 rounds ammo capacity)
  • 70 mm Hydra 70 or APKWS II rockets - Mounted in LAU-68C/A (7 shot) or LAU-61D/A (19 shot) launchers
  • 5 in (127 mm) Zuni rockets - 8 rockets in two 4-round LAU-10D/A launchers
  • TOW missiles - Up to 8 missiles mounted in two 4-round XM65 missile launchers, one on each outboard hardpoint
  • AGM-114 Hellfire missiles - Up to 8 missiles mounted in two 4-round M272 missile launchers, one on each outboard hardpoint
  • AIM-9 Sidewinder anti-aircraft missiles - 1 mounted on each outboard hardpoint (total of 2)

MAGPUL M LOK 9 SLOT RAIL


CH-46 Sea Knight

The Boeing Vertol CH-46 Sea Knight is a medium-lift tandem rotor transport helicopter powered by twin turboshaft aircraft engines. It was used by the United States Marine Corps (USMC) to provide all-weather, day-or-night assault transport of combat troops, supplies and equipment until it was replaced by the MV-22 Osprey. Additional tasks included combat support, search and rescue (SAR), support for forward refueling and rearming points, CASEVAC and Tactical Recovery of Aircraft and Personnel (TRAP).

The Sea Knight was also the U.S. Navy's standard medium-lift utility helicopter until it was phased out in favor of the MH-60S Knighthawk in the early 2000s. Canada also operated the Sea Knight, designated as CH-113, and operated them in the SAR role until 2004. Other export customers include Japan, Sweden, and Saudi Arabia. The commercial version is the BV 107-II, commonly referred to simply as the "Vertol".

The CH-46 has tandem counter-rotating rotors powered by two GE T58 turboshaft engines. The engines are mounted on each side of the rear rotor pedestal with a driveshaft to the forward rotor. The engines are coupled so either could power both rotors in an emergency. The rotors feature three blades and can be folded for on-ship operations. The CH-46 has fixed tricycle landing gear, with twin wheels on all three landing gear legs. The gear configuration causes a nose-up stance to facilitate cargo loading and unloading. The main gear are fitted in rear sponsons that also contain fuel tanks with a total capacity of 350 US gallons.

The CH-46 has a cargo bay with a rear loading ramp that could be removed or left open in flight for extended cargo or for parachute drops. An internal winch is mounted in the forward cabin and can be used to pull external cargo on pallets into the aircraft via the ramp and rollers. A belly sling hook (cargo hook) which is usually rated at 10,000 lb. could be attached for carrying external cargo. Although the hook is rated at 10,000 lbs the limited power produced by the engines precludes the lifting of such weight. It usually has a crew of three, but can accommodate a larger crew depending on mission specifics. For example, a Search and Rescue variant will usually carry a crew of five (Pilot, Co-Pilot, Crew Chief, Swimmer, and Medic) to facilitate all aspects of such a mission. The CH-46E can transport about 25 troops. A pintle-mounted .50 Cal Browning M2 machine gun is mounted on each side of the helicopter for self-defense. Service in southeast Asia resulted in the addition of armor with the guns.




CH-53D Sea Stallion

The CH-53 Sea Stallion is the most common name for the Sikorsky S-65 family of heavy-lift transport helicopters. Originally developed for use by the United States Marine Corps, it is in service with Germany, Iran, Israel, and Mexico. The United States Air Force operated the HH-53 "Super Jolly Green Giant" during the late– and post–Vietnam-War era, updating most of them as the MH-53 Pave Low.

The dimensionally-similar CH-53E Super Stallion is a heavier-lifting, improved version designated S-80E by Sikorsky. Its third engine makes it more powerful than the Sea Stallion, which it has replaced in the heavy-lift mission.

The CH-53D features uprated engines, initially T64-GE-412 with 3,695 shp then the T64-413 with 3,925 shp with an uprated transmission. Its interior added seats to allow for 55 troops. CH-53Ds are generally armed with twin .50 BMG M2/XM218 machine guns. In later years, CH-53Ds have been fitted with defensive countermeasures including an AN/ALE-39 chaff dispenser and an AN/ALQ-157 infrared countermeasure.

Later production CH-53Ds featured a Blade Inspection Method (BIM) scheme to detect cracks in its metal rotors. BIM involved pressurizing the interior of the rotor blades with nitrogen. If a crack is present pressure is lost and a red indicator on the rotor blade tip was tripped. Later, the BIM system was connected to a cockpit display. BIM reduced the need to swap out rotor blades on a routine basis.

The last CH-53Ds performed the D-model's final mission in Afghanistan in late February 2012 and were taken out of service afterwards.







To be continued...













Shawn Garlow in the Korengal Valley, Kunar Province, Afghanistan.










For more info on these and other weapons
Technical specs compiled from:
http://armypubs.army.mil/doctrine/Active_FM.html
http://world.guns.ru/index-e.html
https://en.wikipedia.org
http://www.militaryfactory.com/smallarms/



For Use of Photos by Shawn Garlow
Contact: garlow.co@gmail.com

Labels: , , , , , , , , , , ,

Nordic Components by Cactus Tactical

Friday, August 05, 2016

The Tactical Blog from Cactus Tactical

Weapons of the War in Afghanistan: Rotary-wing Aircraft

Weapons of the War in Afghanistan
CH-47 on a supply mission in the Korengal Valley, Afghanistan.
In the world of war, weapons and technology are ever changing, each war is characterized by the weapons and tactics used to fight it. As new environments and enemies are encountered, the parties to those wars develop new - more effective tactics, technologies, and weapons to counter and defeat their adversaries. The ingenuity seen in war has existed since (and most certainly before) the first wars of recorded history and continue to this very day. 


Keeping with that theory, let’s take a look at the weapons that have characterized the wars and conflicts that the United States has been a party to over the course of it’s history. During the course of this series, I aim to breakdown the weapons used in each conflict by their classification, and to which party they were employed by. Having served in combat operations in Afghanistan’s Korengal Valley, I would like to start our series with the War in Afghanistan. 


For our tenth installment let's take a look at the most common rotary-wing aircraft of the war in Afghanistan. These can be anything from supply to transport to attack helicopters. Rotary-wing aircraft play a major role in the war in Afghanistan, and the war could not be effectively fought without them.




The United States

AH-64 Apache

In Afghanistan it is always a good feeling having Apaches on call for close air support (CAS). These well armed helos have helped ground forces out of many sticky situations in Afghanistan over the course of the war. They are absolutely indispensable to forces on the ground. 

The Boeing AH-64 Apache is an American four-blade, twin-turboshaft attack helicopter with a tailwheel-type landing gear arrangement and a tandem cockpit for a two-man crew. It features a nose-mounted sensor suite for target acquisition and night vision systems. It is armed with a 30 mm M230 chain gun carried between the main landing gear, under the aircraft's forward fuselage. It has four hardpoints mounted on stub-wing pylons, typically carrying a mixture of AGM-114 Hellfire missiles and Hydra 70 rocket pods. The AH-64 has a large amount of systems redundancy to improve combat survivability.

The U.S. Army is the primary operator of the AH-64; it has also become the primary attack helicopter of multiple nations, including Greece, Japan, Israel, the Netherlands, Singapore, and the United Arab Emirates; as well as being produced under license in the United Kingdom as the AgustaWestland Apache. American AH-64s have served in conflicts in Panama, the Persian Gulf, Kosovo, Afghanistan, and Iraq. Israel used the Apache in its military conflicts in Lebanon and the Gaza Strip; British and Dutch Apaches have seen deployments in Afghanistan and Iraq.


AH-64 providing Close Air Support (CAS) for ground element in the Korengal Valley, Afghanistan.






CH-47 Chinook

This flying bus has dropped off countless war-fighters to the battlefield since it's inception during the Vietnam War. I've caught a ride on more Chinooks than I can keep track of. I'll never forget the feeling and rush I would get during air-assault missions in the mountain tops of Afghanistan via the Chinook; there's nothing quite like it.

The Boeing CH-47 Chinook is an American twin-engine, tandem rotor heavy-lift helicopter. Its primary roles are troop movement, artillery placement and battlefield resupply. It has a wide loading ramp at the rear of the fuselage and three external ventral cargo hooks. With a top speed of 170 knots (196 mph) the helicopter was faster than contemporary 1960s utility helicopters and attack helicopters, and is still one of the fastest helicopters in the US inventory. The CH-47 is among the heaviest lifting Western helicopters.

The Chinook was designed and initially produced by Boeing Vertol in the early 1960s; it is now produced by Boeing Rotorcraft Systems. It is one of the few aircraft of that era – along with the fixed-wing Lockheed C-130 Hercules cargo aircraft – that remain in production and frontline service, with over 1,200 built to date. The helicopter has been sold to 16 nations with the U.S. Army and the Royal Air Force being its largest users.

The CH-47D has seen wide use in Operation Enduring Freedom in Afghanistan and Operation Iraqi Freedom in Iraq. The Chinook is being used in air assault missions, inserting troops into fire bases and later bringing food, water, and ammunition. It is also the casualty evacuation (casevac) aircraft of choice in the British Armed Forces. In combat theaters, it is typically escorted by attack helicopters such as the AH-64 Apache for protection. Its lift capacity has been found of particular value in the mountainous terrain of Afghanistan where high altitudes and temperatures limit the use of helicopters such as UH-60 Black Hawk; reportedly, one Chinook can replace up to five UH-60s in the air assault transport role.


CH-47 leaving Firebase Vegas, Korengal Valley, Afghanistan.






UH-60 Black Hawk

In Afghanistan the Black Hawk is used heavily for medevac/casevac helicopters, as well as VIP transport.

The Sikorsky UH-60 Black Hawk is a four-bladed, twin-engine, medium-lift utility helicopter manufactured by Sikorsky Aircraft. Sikorsky submitted the S-70 design for the United States Army's Utility Tactical Transport Aircraft System (UTTAS) competition in 1972. The Army designated the prototype as the YUH-60A and selected the Black Hawk as the winner of the program in 1976, after a fly-off competition with the Boeing Vertol YUH-61.

The UH-60A entered service with the U.S. Army in 1979, to replace the Bell UH-1 Iroquois as the Army's tactical transport helicopter. This was followed by the fielding of electronic warfare and special operations variants of the Black Hawk. Improved UH-60L and UH-60M utility variants have also been developed. Modified versions have also been developed for the U.S. Navy, Air Force, and Coast Guard. In addition to U.S. Army use, the UH-60 family has been exported to several nations. Black Hawks have served in combat during conflicts in Grenada, Panama, Iraq, Somalia, the Balkans, Afghanistan, and other areas in the Middle East.


UH-60 Medevac helicopter leaving Firebase Vegas after a resupply helicopter was hit on the LZ by an RPG.
Korengal Valley, Afghanistan.





OH-58 Kiowa


The Bell OH-58 Kiowa is a family of single-engine, single-rotor, military helicopters used for observation, utility, and direct fire support. Bell Helicopter manufactured the OH-58 for the United States Army based on its Model 206A JetRanger helicopter. The OH-58 has been in continuous use by the U.S. Army since 1969.

The latest model, the OH-58D Kiowa Warrior, is primarily operated in an armed reconnaissance role in support of ground troops. The OH-58 has been exported to Austria, Canada, Croatia, the Dominican Republic, Taiwan, and Saudi Arabia. It has also been produced under license in Australia.

The United States Army has employed the OH-58D during Operation Iraqi Freedom in Iraq and Operation Enduring Freedom in Afghanistan. Due to combat and accidents, over 35 airframes have been lost, with 35 pilots killed. Their presence has also been anecdotally credited with saving lives, having been used to rescue wounded despite their small size. In Iraq, OH-58Ds flew 72 hours per month, while in Afghanistan, they flew 80 hours per month. In 2013, Bell stated that the OH-58 had 820,000 combat hours, and 90% mission capable rate.


To be continued...














Shawn Garlow in the Korengal Valley, Kunar Province, Afghanistan.










For more info on these and other weapons
Technical specs compiled from:
http://armypubs.army.mil/doctrine/Active_FM.html
http://world.guns.ru/index-e.html
https://en.wikipedia.org
http://www.militaryfactory.com/smallarms/



For Use of Photos by Shawn Garlow
Contact: garlow.co@gmail.com


Labels: , , , , , , , , , , , ,

Nordic Components by Cactus Tactical

Wednesday, August 03, 2016

The Tactical Blog from Cactus Tactical

Weapons of the War in Afghanistan: Edged Weapons Part II

Weapons of the War in Afghanistan


In the world of war, weapons and technology are ever changing, each war is characterized by the weapons and tactics used to fight it. As new environments and enemies are encountered, the parties to those wars develop new - more effective tactics, technologies, and weapons to counter and defeat their adversaries. The ingenuity seen in war has existed since (and most certainly before) the first wars of recorded history and continue to this very day. 


Keeping with that theory, let’s take a look at the weapons that have characterized the wars and conflicts that the United States has been a party to over the course of it’s history. During the course of this series, I aim to breakdown the weapons used in each conflict by their classification, and to which party they were employed by. Having served in combat operations in Afghanistan’s Korengal Valley, I would like to start our series with the War in Afghanistan. 


For our ninth installment let's take a look at the most common edged weapons of the war in Afghanistan.






Part II: AAF / ACF

Pesh-kabz / Choora / Karud / Kard / Khyber Knife

The pesh-kabz is a type of Perso-Afghan knife designed to penetrate mail armor and other types of armor. The word is also spelled pesh-quabz or pish-ghabz and means "fore-grip" in the Persian language. Originally from Iran, it is now widespread in Central Asia, Afghanistan, Pakistan and northern India.

All pesh-kabz use a hollow-ground, tempered steel single-edged full-tang blade with a thick spine bearing a "T" cross-section for strength and rigidity. In most examples, a pair of handle scales are fixed to the full-tang grip, which features a hooked butt. The earliest forms of this knife featured a recurved blade, suggestive of its Persian origins, but later examples may be found with both recurved or straight blades. The straight blade is the more common form in South Asia. In all variants the blade is invariably broad at the hilt, but tapers progressively and radically to a needle-like, triangular tip. Upon striking a coat of mail, this reinforced tip spreads the chain link apart, enabling the rest of the blade to penetrate the armor. One knife authority concluded that the pesh-kabz "as a piece of engineering design could hardly be improved upon for the purpose".

The knife is typically used as a thrusting weapon. However, the wide hollow-ground blade also possesses considerable slicing performance, and as such may also be used effectively with slashing or cutting strokes. Its ability to be used as either a cutting or thrusting weapon has caused more than one authority to erroneously classify the pesh-kabz as a fighting dagger.

Pesh-kabz are typically around 16-18 inches in overall length, with blades of approximately 11-13 inches. When compared to other similar knives with T-section blades and reinforced tips, the pesh-kabz is virtually indistinguishable, save for its length of blade. The otherwise identical kard or bahbudi (antiq.) has a longer blade (though still shorter than an Afghan sword such as the salwar yatagan) and is considered a separate design, while the chura, used by the Mahsud clan of the Pashtun Khyber tribe, is a slightly shorter version of the pesh-kabz.

The pesh-kabz has a full tang and is traditionally fitted with walrus (ivory scales or handles), but other examples have been found using ivory from the tusks of the rhinoceros, or elephant. Still other knives may be found with scales of wood, agate, jasper, rock crystal, horn, serpentine (false jade), or metal. The sheaths are typically constructed of metal or leather over wood, and may be inset with silver or precious stones.

The pesh-kabz originated in Safavid Persia and is believed to have been created sometime in the 17th century to overcome the mail armor worn by mounted and foot soldiers of the day. After armor ceased to be worn by modern armies, the pesh-kabz retained its utility as a close combat knife, and many Pashtun tribesmen, particularly the Mahsud, Afridi, and Shinwari clans, continued to use the design, along with the chura and kard.

The pesh-kabz is still used today as a personal weapon as well as a ceremonial badge of adulthood for Pashtun and other Afghan hill tribes. During the Soviet occupation of Afghanistan, this knife was again the weapon most often used to execute captured or wounded prisoners, this time Soviet and Afghan army soldiers, pilots, and tank crewmen.
  • Manufacturer: Various Blacksmiths
  • Weight: N/A
  • Overall Length: Typically around 16-18 inches
  • Blade length: Approximately 11-13 inches
  • Blade Material: N/A





Pulwar
The pulwar is a single-handed curved sword originating in Afghanistan. It is the traditional sword of the Pashtun people.

The pulwar originated alongside other scimitar-type weapons such as the Arab saif, the Persian shamshir, the Turkish kilij, and the Indo-Pakistani talwar, all of them ultimately based on earlier Central Asian swords. Originally, the Khyber knife served as the weapon of the common people while upper-classes could afford to import swords from neighboring Persia and India. Over time, the Afghans combined characteristics of the imported swords and adapted it to create the pulwar. Most existing pulwar date back to the early 19th century.

Borrowing features from the swords of neighboring lands, the pulwar may be described as an Afghan version of the Indo-Pakistani talwar. Pulwar blades tend to be more elaborately fullered than those of the talwar. Some pulwar hilts were fitted to Persian blades which are slimmer and more curved and tapered towards the tip than the more typically robust pulwar blades. The hilt is characterized by two quillons which are short and turned to point in the direction of the blade in the manner of some shamshir and saif, a feature typical of swords produced in Qajar period Iran. Unlike the flat disc surrounding the pommel of the tulwar, the pommel of pulwar exhibits a cup-shape. Often both hilt and blade can be ornately engraved with inscriptions, designs, and images.
  • Manufacturer: Various Blacksmiths
  • Weight: N/A
  • Overall Length: N/A
  • Blade length: N/A
  • Blade Material: N/A


TEKMAT BLACK AR15 MAT



Other


Many of the edged weapons and tools you come across in Afghanistan are one off items made by blacksmiths; some are custom and some are of common designs for the area. Items can range from very well made pieces, to very rough almost amateur pieces. 
  • Manufacturer: Various Blacksmiths
  • Weight: Various
  • Overall Length: Various
  • Blade length: Various
  • Blade Material: Various


















Shawn Garlow in the Korengal Valley, Kunar Province, Afghanistan.










For more info on these and other weapons
Technical specs compiled from:
http://armypubs.army.mil/doctrine/Active_FM.html
http://world.guns.ru/index-e.html
https://en.wikipedia.org
http://www.militaryfactory.com/smallarms/



For Use of Photos by Shawn Garlow
Contact: garlow.co@gmail.com

Labels: , , , , , , , , , , , , , ,

Nordic Components by Cactus Tactical