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Monday, October 02, 2017

The Tactical Blog from Cactus Tactical

Weapons of the War in Afghanistan: MANPADS (Surface to Air Missiles), Part I

Weapons of the War in Afghanistan

In the world of war, weapons and technology are ever changing, each war is characterized by the weapons and tactics used to fight it. As new environments and enemies are encountered, the parties to those wars develop new - more effective tactics, technologies, and weapons to counter and defeat their adversaries. The ingenuity seen in war has existed since (and most certainly before) the first wars of recorded history and continue to this very day. 

Keeping with that theory, let’s take a look at the weapons that have characterized the wars and conflicts that the United States has been a party to over the course of it’s history. During the course of this series, I aim to breakdown the weapons used in each conflict by their classification, and to which party they were employed by. Having served in combat operations in Afghanistan’s Korengal Valley, I would like to start our series with the War in Afghanistan. 

For our twenty-second installment let's take a look the most common MANPADS, or Surface-to-Air Missiles, in the War in Afghanistan. 

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Part I - AAF / ACF

FIM-92 Stinger
The FIM-92 Stinger is a Man-Portable Air-Defense System (MANPADS) that operates as an infrared homing surface-to-air missile (SAM). It can be adapted to fire from a wide variety of ground vehicles and helicopters. Developed in the United States this weapon system entered service in 1981 and is used by the militaries of the United States and 29 other countries. It is principally manufactured by Raytheon Missile Systems and is produced under license by EADS in Germany and by Roketsan in Turkey with 70,000 missiles produced.

Light to carry and easy to operate, the FIM-92 Stinger is a passive surface-to-air missile, that can be shoulder-fired by a single operator (although standard military procedure calls for two operators, spotter and gunner). The FIM-92B missile can also be fired from the M-1097 Avenger and the M6 Linebacker. The missile is also capable of being deployed from a Humvee Stinger rack, and can be used by airborne troops. A helicopter launched version exists called Air-to-Air Stinger (ATAS).

The missile is 5.0 ft long and 2.8 inches in diameter with 10 cm fins. The missile itself weighs 22 lbs, while the missile with launcher weighs approximately 34 lbs. The Stinger is launched by a small ejection motor that pushes it a safe distance from the operator before engaging the main two-stage solid-fuel sustainer, which accelerates it to a maximum speed of Mach 2.54 (750 m/s). The warhead is a 3 kg penetrating hit-to-kill warhead type with an impact fuze and a self-destruct timer.

To fire the missile, a BCU (Battery Coolant Unit) is inserted into the handguard. This shoots a stream of argon gas into the system, as well as a chemical energy charge that enables the acquisition indicators and missile to get power. The batteries are somewhat sensitive to abuse, with a limited amount of gas. Over time, and without proper maintenance, they can become unserviceable. The IFF system receives power from a rechargeable battery. Guidance to the target is initially through proportional navigation, then switches to another mode that directs the missile towards the target airframe instead of its exhaust plume.


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SA-7 Grail
The 9K32 Strela-2 (NATO reporting name SA-7 Grail) is a man-portable, shoulder-fired, low-altitude surface-to-air missile system (MANPADS) with a high explosive warhead and passive infrared homing guidance. Broadly comparable in performance with the US Army FIM-43 Redeye, it was the first generation of Soviet man-portable SAMs, entering service in 1968, with series production starting in 1970.

Described by one expert as being "the premier Russian export line",the Strela and its variants have seen widespread use in nearly every regional conflict since 1968.

The missile launcher system consists of the green missile launch tube containing the missile, a grip stock and a cylindrical thermal battery. The launch tube is reloadable at depot, but missile rounds are delivered to fire units in their launch tubes. The device can be reloaded up to five times.

The manufacturer lists reaction time measured from the carrying position (missile carried on a soldier's back with protective covers) to missile launch to be 13 seconds, a figure that is achievable but requires considerable training and skill in missile handling. With the launcher on the shoulder, covers removed and sights extended, reaction time from fire command to launch reduces to 6–10 seconds, depending greatly on the target difficulty and the shooter's skill.

After activating the power supply to the missile electronics, the gunner waits for electricity supply and gyros to stabilize, puts the sights on target and tracks it smoothly with the launch tube's iron sights, and pulls the trigger on the grip stock. This activates the seeker electronics and the missile attempts to lock onto the target. If the target is producing a strong enough signal and the angular tracking rate is within acceptable launch parameters, the missile alerts the gunner that the target is locked on by illuminating a light in the sight mechanism, and producing a constant buzzing noise. The operator then has 0.8 seconds to provide lead to the target while the missile's on-board power supply is activated and the throw-out motor ignited.

Should the target be outside acceptable parameters, then the light cue in the sight and the buzzer signal tell the gunner to re-aim the missile.

On launch, the booster burns out before the missile leaves the launch tube at 32 m/s and rotating at c. 20 revolutions per second. As the missile leaves the tube, the two forward steering fins unfold, as do the four rear stabilizing tail fins. The self-destruct mechanism is then armed, which is set to destroy the missile after between 14 and 17 seconds to prevent it hitting the ground if it should miss the target.

Once the missile is five and a half meters away from the gunner, c. 0.3 seconds after leaving the launch tube, it activates the rocket sustainer motor. The sustainer motor takes it to a velocity of 430 meters per second, and sustains it at this speed. Once it reaches peak speed, at a distance of around 120 meters from the gunner, the final safety mechanism is disabled and the missile is fully armed. All told, the booster burns for 0.5 second and the driving engine for another 2.0 seconds.

The missile's uncooled lead sulphide passive infra-red seeker head detects infrared radiation at below 2.8 μm in wavelength. It has a 1.9 degree field of view and can track at 9 degrees per second. The seeker head tracks the target with an amplitude-modulated spinning reticle (spin-scan or AM tracking), which attempts to keep the seeker constantly pointed towards the target. The spinning reticle measures the amount of incoming infrared (IR) energy. It does this by using a circular pattern that has solid portions and slats that allow the IR energy to pass through to the seeker. As the reticle spins IR energy passes through the open portions of the reticle. Based on where the IR energy falls on the reticle the amount or amplitude of IR energy allowed through to the seeker increases the closer to the center of the reticle. Therefore, the seeker is able to identify where the center of the IR energy is. If the seeker detects a decrease in the amplitude of the IR energy it steers the missile back towards where the IR energy was the strongest. The seeker's design creates a dead-space in the middle of the reticle. The center mounted reticle has no detection capability. This means that as the seeker tracks a target as soon as the seeker is dead center, (aimed directly at the IR source) there is a decrease in the amplitude of IR energy. The seeker interprets this decrease as being off target so it changes direction. This causes the missile to move off target until another decrease in IR energy is detected and the process repeats itself. This gives the missile a very noticeable wobble in flight as the seeker bounces in and out from the dead-space. This wobble becomes more pronounced as the missile closes on the target as the IR energy fills a greater portion of the reticle. These continuous course corrections effectively bleed energy from the missile reducing its range and velocity.

The guidance of the SA-7 follows proportional convergence logic, also known as angle rate tracking system or pro-logic. In this method, as the seeker tracks the target, the missile is turned towards where the seeker is turning towards – not where it is pointing at – relative to the missile's longitudinal axis. Against a target flying in a straight-line course at constant speed, the angle rate of seeker-to-body reduces to zero when the missile is in a straight-line flight path to intercept point.


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SA-14 Gremlin
The 9K34 Strela-3 is a man-portable air defence missile system (MANPADS) developed in the Soviet Union as a response to the poor performance of the earlier 9K32 Strela 2 (SA-7 Grail) system. "9K34" is its GRAU designation, while its NATO reporting name is SA-14 Gremlin. The missile was largely based on the earlier Strela 2, and thus development proceeded rapidly. The new weapon was accepted to service in the Soviet Army in January 1974.

The most significant change over the Strela 2 was the introduction of an all-new infra-red homing seeker head. The new seeker worked on FM modulation (con-scan) principle, which is less vulnerable to jamming and decoy flares than the earlier AM (spin-scan) seekers, which were easily fooled by flares and even the most primitive infrared jammers. The new seeker also introduced detector element cooling in the form of a pressurized nitrogen bottle attached to the launcher.

The effect of cooling was to expand the seeker's lead sulphide detector element's sensitivity range to longer wavelengths (slightly over 4 µm as opposed to 2.8 µm of uncooled PbS elements). In practice this made possible the tracking of cooler targets over longer ranges, and enabled forward-hemisphere engagement of jets under favourable circumstances.The seeker also had better tracking rate, enabling the missile to track maneuvering of fast and approaching targets.

A negative side effect from the aforementioned improvements was increased missile weight, which caused a slight decrease in the kinematic performance of the original Strela-2 (SA-7). Against relatively slow, low-altitude battlefield air threats the overall effectiveness was much improved.

Strela-3 missiles have been exported to over 30 countries.

The original Strela-3 missile was the 9M36.


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Shawn in the Korengal Valley, Kunar Province, Afghanistan.








For more info on these and other weapons
Technical specs compiled from:
http://armypubs.army.mil/doctrine/Active_FM.html
http://world.guns.ru/index-e.html
https://en.wikipedia.org
http://www.militaryfactory.com/
http://www.olive-drab.com/
http://www.army.mil/
http://dok-ing.hr/products/demining/mv_4?productPage=general
http://www.peosoldier.army.mil/




For Use of Photos by Shawn
Contact: garlow.co@gmail.com

"The appearance of U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) visual information does not imply or constitute DoD endorsement."

Labels: , , , , , , , , , , ,

Wednesday, August 23, 2017

The Tactical Blog from Cactus Tactical

Weapons of the War in Afghanistan: Optics, Part IV

Weapons of the War in Afghanistan

In the world of war, weapons and technology are ever changing, each war is characterized by the weapons and tactics used to fight it. As new environments and enemies are encountered, the parties to those wars develop new - more effective tactics, technologies, and weapons to counter and defeat their adversaries. The ingenuity seen in war has existed since (and most certainly before) the first wars of recorded history and continue to this very day. 

Keeping with that theory, let’s take a look at the weapons that have characterized the wars and conflicts that the United States has been a party to over the course of it’s history. During the course of this series, I aim to breakdown the weapons used in each conflict by their classification, and to which party they were employed by. Having served in combat operations in Afghanistan’s Korengal Valley, I would like to start our series with the War in Afghanistan. 

For our twenty-first installment let's take a look the most common optics used in the War in Afghanistan. 


Part IV - AAF / ACF

PSO-1
Photo Courtesy: Chabster
The PSO-1 (Pritsel Snaipersky Optichesky, "Optical Sniper Sight") is a telescopic sight manufactured in Russia by the Novosibirsk instrument-making factory (NPZ Optics State Plant) and issued with the Russian military Dragunov sniper rifle. The PSO-1 was, at the time of its introduction around 1964, the most technically advanced telescopic sight ever designed for a mass-production designated marksman or sniper rifle.

The PSO-1 was specifically designed for the SVD as a telescopic sight for military designated marksman activities. The current version of the sight is the PSO-1M2. This telescopic sight is different from the original PSO-1 only in that it lacks the now obsolete infrared detector. The metal body of the PSO-1 is made from a magnesium alloy. The PSO-1 features a battery-powered red illuminated reticle with light provided by a simple diode bulb. It features professionally ground, fully multi-coated optical elements, a baked enamel finish for scratch protection, and an attached, quick-deployable, extendable sunshade. The scope body is sealed and filled with nitrogen, which prevents fogging of optics and was designed to function within a -58 °F to 122 °F temperature range. For zeroing the telescopic sight the reticle can be adjusted by manipulating the elevation and windage turrets in 0.5 mil or 1.72 MOA increments.

Considered the higher end of Soviet military side-mount telescopic sights, the quality of the PSO-1 is higher than most other PSO-style telescopic sights. The PSO-1 has neither a focus adjustment nor a parallax compensation control. Most modern military tactical scopes with lower power fixed magnification such as the ACOG, C79 optical sight or SUSAT (intended for rapid close-intermediate range shots rather than long-range sniping) lack such features as well. Modern fixed magnification military high-end-grade sniper telescopic sights scopes intended for long-range shooting usually offer one or both of these features. The positioning of the scope’s body to the left of the bore’s center line may not be comfortable to all shooters.

The PSO-1 elevation turret features bullet drop compensation (BDC) in 50 m or 100 m increments for engaging point and area targets at ranges from 100 m up to 1,000 m. At longer distances the shooter must use the chevrons that would shift the trajectory by 100 m per each chevron. The BDC feature must be tuned at the factory for the particular ballistic trajectory of a particular combination of rifle and cartridge at a predefined air density. Inevitable BDC-induced errors will occur if the environmental and meteorological circumstances deviate from the circumstances the BDC was calibrated for. Marksmen can be trained to compensate for these errors. Besides the BDC elevation or vertical adjustment control of the reticle, the windage or horizontal adjustment control of the reticle can also be easily dialed in by the user without having to remove turret caps etc.

The PSO-1 features a reticle with "floating" elements designed for use in range estimation and bullet drop and drift compensation.

The top center "chevron" (^) is used as the main aiming mark. The horizontal hash marks are for windage and lead corrections and can be used for ranging purposes as well.

To the left is a stadiametric rangefinder that can be used to determine the distance from a 5 ft 6.9 inch tall object/person from 200 m (2) to 1000 m (10). For this the lowest part of the target is lined up on the bottom horizontal line. Where the top of the target touches the top curved line the distance can be determined. This reticle lay out is also used in several other telescopic sights produced and used by other former Warsaw Pact member states.

The three lower chevrons in the center are used as hold over points for engaging area targets beyond 1,000 meters (the maximum BDC range setting on the elevation drum). The user has to set the elevation turret to 1,000 meters and then apply the chevrons for 1,100, 1,200 or 1,300 meters respectively.

The 10 reticle hashmarks in the horizontal plane can be used to compensate for wind or moving targets and can also be used for additional stadiametric rangefinding purposes, since they are spaced at 1 milliradian intervals, meaning if an object is 5 m wide it will appear 10 hashmarks wide at 500 m.

The reticle can be illuminated by a small battery-powered lamp.

  • Magnification: 4x
  • Objective diameter: 24 mm
  • Field of view: 6°
  • Exit pupil: 6 mm
  • Eye relief: 80 mm
  • Limiting optical resolution: 12 SOA
  • Power supply for reticle illumination: 1 AA battery
  • Weight: 0.6 kg
  • Overall dimensions: (L x W x H): 375 x 70 x 132 mm



SPP (1OP50) and SPP-M

The SPP (1OP50) and SPP-M machine gun sights are designed for aimed firing during daylight hours from the NSV-12.7 and Kord machine guns at a distance of up to 2000 m, as well as at dusk and at night with the reticle illumination on.
     
The SPP sight was used as a base for development of a higher power sight SPP-M. which, apart from machine guns, can be installed on sniper rifles. The SPP sight for the Utes (NSV-12.7) heavy machine gun was developed by designers L. A. Glyzov and V. M. Kotov in 1972. The main task of the machine gun is to fight soft targets at ranges of up to 1500-2000 m. The sight features variable magnification to meet two conflicting objectives: on the one hand, it is necessary to keep a check on as wide of a field of view as possible (12° at a magnification of 3х), and on the other hand, improvement of the efficient firing range requires a higher power (6 at a field of view of 6°). The magnification is changed by simultaneous movement of the erecting system lenses along the optical axis according to the Saw set by a mechanical cam. Illumination of the aiming reticle and the remote power supply system are arranged similarly to the PSO-1 sight.

To determine the target range, the sight uses the "base on target" distance measuring technique. The ranging scale within the field of view of the sight provides a means to take the range using a full-height figure target (5 ft 6.9 inchs) at a distance of up to 1000 m. 
     
Characteristics:
  • aimed fire to a distance of up to 2000 m in the daytime and in the dusk with the reticle illumination on;
  • the sight has a ranging scale and is equipped with halving and elevation adjustment mechanisms;
  • the sight comes complete with individual, group and repair SPTA sets; 
  • the sight can be used at a temperature from minus 50°C to plus 50°C. The SPP sight was put into service in 1972.
  • Developed by Tochpribor Central Design Bureau, Novosibirsk
  • Manufactured by NPZ Optics Stale Plant.



PAG-17
Photo Courtesy: George Shuklin
The automatic grenade launcher sight PAG-17 is an optical sight that serves for targeting the AGS-17 grenade launcher when firing at targets at different distances.

The sight of the PAG-17 is intended for aiming an automatic grenade launcher when firing both direct guidance and from closed positions. For this purpose, the sight is provided with a goniometric mechanism and a mechanism of elevation angles for guidance in the horizontal and vertical planes. There are two levels for controlling the roll and the angle of elevation of the grenade launcher. The sight is also equipped with illumination of the aiming grid and scales of targeting mechanisms for aiming at night time.

The sight consists of a body in which a protractor and the mechanism of elevation angles and heads from an optical system are assembled. The body serves to connect all parts of the sight. It has an axis of sight with an oval recess and a pin to attach the sight to the grenade launcher; A bar for fastening the cartridges of the illumination of scales and levels.

The longitudinal level serves to control and deliver the grenade launcher a given elevation angle when firing from a closed fire position. The head of the sight is used for sighting on the target (point of focusing) in it an optical system is assembled. There is an eyepiece on the head; On the left - a sight and a point for direct guidance for grenade launchers in case of damage to the optical system; On top - the base for attaching the lamp holder of the sighting grid; Front on the rim - two screws for fixing the light filter. The optical system of the sight consists of an objective, a prism, a grid, an eyepiece and protective glass. The lens is intended for obtaining images of the observed object. The prism is a wrapping system and serves to obtain a real direct image. The eyepiece serves to increase the viewing of the image of the observed object and the grid. Protective glass protects the sight from getting inside dust and dirt. Through it, the grid of the sight is illuminated. The mesh of the sight is a plate on which the scales of the angles of sight and lateral corrections are plotted.
















Shawn in the Korengal Valley, Kunar Province, Afghanistan.








For more info on these and other weapons
Technical specs compiled from:
http://armypubs.army.mil/doctrine/Active_FM.html
http://world.guns.ru/index-e.html
https://en.wikipedia.org
http://www.militaryfactory.com/
http://www.olive-drab.com/
http://www.army.mil/
http://dok-ing.hr/products/demining/mv_4?productPage=general
http://www.peosoldier.army.mil/




For Use of Photos by Shawn
Contact: garlow.co@gmail.com

"The appearance of U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) visual information does not imply or constitute DoD endorsement."

Labels: , , , , , , , , , , , ,

Monday, July 24, 2017

The Tactical Blog from Cactus Tactical

Weapons of the War in Afghanistan: Optics, Part III

Weapons of the War in Afghanistan

In the world of war, weapons and technology are ever changing, each war is characterized by the weapons and tactics used to fight it. As new environments and enemies are encountered, the parties to those wars develop new - more effective tactics, technologies, and weapons to counter and defeat their adversaries. The ingenuity seen in war has existed since (and most certainly before) the first wars of recorded history and continue to this very day. 

Keeping with that theory, let’s take a look at the weapons that have characterized the wars and conflicts that the United States has been a party to over the course of it’s history. During the course of this series, I aim to breakdown the weapons used in each conflict by their classification, and to which party they were employed by. Having served in combat operations in Afghanistan’s Korengal Valley, I would like to start our series with the War in Afghanistan. 

For our twenty-first installment let's take a look the most common optics used in the War in Afghanistan. 


Part III - The United States

Leupold Mark 4 LR/T 6.5-20x50mm
The Leupold Mark 4 LR/T 6.5-20x50mm riflescope utilizes Leupold's 2nd Generation Argon/Krypton Waterproofing. Leupold's proprietary Argon/Krypton gas blends advantages are two fold: it nearly eliminates the effects of thermal shock, and the Argon/Krypton molecules are significantly larger than nitrogen molecules, reducing the diffusion of gases sealed inside your scope even more than their proven nitrogen technology already does. Blackened lens edges reduce unwanted glare and diffusion through the lens edges to provide better resolution, improved contrast and superior optical performance. Exterior lens surfaces are treated with DiamondCoat 2™, an ion-assist lens coating, for higher light transmission and the greatest level of abrasion resistance offered. The generous eyebox makes it faster and easier to get your eye behind the riflescope and achieve a full, clear sight picture. At high power, the longer eye relief and more generous eyebox gives you incredible head position latitude and an improved sight picture that fills the eyepiece completely. 

30mm Maintube
3:1 Zoom Ratio
Flip Back Lens Covers (Mark 4)
Lockable Fast-Focus Eyepiece
M1 Adjustments
Side Focus
Super Fast-Focus Eyepiece
Tactile Power Selector
Twin Bias Spring Erector System
Waterproof/Fogproof
Xtended Twilight Lens System


Magnification---------------------- Low--------High
Actual Magnification---------------6.50 x____19.50 x
Linear Field of View (ft/100 yd)--14.30 ft___5.50 ft
Linear Field of View (m/100 m)--4.80 m____1.80 m
Eye Relief (in)---------------------4.40 in____3.60 in
Weight: 22.00 oz
Objective Clear Aperture: 2.00 in
Elevation Adjustment Range: 70.00 moa
Windage Adjustment Range: 70.00 moa





M8541 Scout Sniper Day Scope
The M8541 Scout Sniper Day Scope is a Schmidt and Bender Police Marksman II LP 3–12×50 modified by Premier Reticles. Starting in 2007, this model replaced the Unertl MST-100 10× fixed day scope. This day scope is mounted with Badger Ordnance USMC M40A3 34mm scope rings, which use a standard ring in the rear and a wider MAX-50 ring in front. The standard front ring cap is replaced with a SPA-Defense B634 34mm Male Dovetail, as a mounting platform for the Simrad KN200 Night Vision Weapon Sight. The scope and rings are mounted on a DD Ross 30-minute-of-angle lugged Picatinny rail.

A very versatile scope permitting to realize distances of up to 1500m. The reticle is located in the first focal plane permitting a distance evaluation in all magnifications.





EOTech Holographic Sight
The holographic sight uses laser-driven holographic technology. It constructs a 2 or 3-dimensional image of a reticle, and the laser illuminates the hologram. Then the viewer looking through the sight window can see the reticle image in the distance, at the target plane.

The projection of the reticle appears...
  • Only to the user
  • In the window of the sight


Onboard Computer Controls:
  • Holographic weapon sights (HWS) use state-of-the-art digital electronics, including an onboard microprocessor. These components give the operator precise control of the illumination laser, including...
  • Scrolling through brightness levels (to adjust for low light to bright sunlight)
  • Automatically checking battery power indicators
  • Programming auto shutdown features


Heads-Up Display:
  • In holography, all of the information required to reconstruct the reticle image is recorded everywhere in the heads-up display window. This is the technology that fighter pilots use for target acquisition. It creates an accurate image of a target even in poor-visibility conditions like rain, snow, darkness or cloud cover.
  • The heads-up display of a holographic sight provides the user with 2-eyes-open shooting. This eliminates blind spots and tunnel vision, and maximizes peripheral vision.


Durable Design:
  • Durability is an important function of HWS. The sights are designed and built to be resistant to water, fog, shocks and extreme temperatures.
  • Optical cavity – Enclosed and sealed with state-of-the-art aerospace composite material to keep out water and fog
  • Components – Hardened and corrosion resistant
  • Electronics – Encapsulated in shock-absorbing resin compound to remain fully operational and hold zero in Military Specifications (MIL-SPEC) drop tests
  • Acceleration Tested – Functions with 2,500 Gs of acceleration in less than 0.5 milliseconds
  • Heads-Up Display – 3-layers of laminate and glass, further protected by a rugged, roll-bar-style hood
  • Even if the window is shattered or is partially obstructed by mud, snow or rain, it can still function. As long as the operator can see through any portion of the window, the entire reticle pattern remains visible on the target.


No Revealing Light Signature:
  • All external optical surfaces of the HWS are flat and have anti-reflective coatings so no glare elimination filters are needed.
  • The projected reticle is visible to only the operator. Even GEN-III night vision equipment cannot detect the muzzle-side signature of the HWS operator’s position.


Night Vision Compatible:
  • There are 20 daylight brightness settings on an EOTech HWS. In addition, the night vision mode has 10 additional distinct brightness settings that compensate for...

  1. Ambient environment
  2. Variances in sensitivity of the image intensifier tubes
  3. Differences in light-gathering sensitivity of the human eye, from user to user
  4. Just as an EOTech HWS without night vision emits no muzzle-side signature, the EOTech HWS in night vision mode is also not detectable by enemy night vision surveillance systems, making it an effective stealth system.

















Shawn in the Korengal Valley, Kunar Province, Afghanistan.








For more info on these and other weapons
Technical specs compiled from:
http://armypubs.army.mil/doctrine/Active_FM.html
http://world.guns.ru/index-e.html
https://en.wikipedia.org
http://www.militaryfactory.com/
http://www.olive-drab.com/
http://www.army.mil/
http://dok-ing.hr/products/demining/mv_4?productPage=general
http://www.peosoldier.army.mil/




For Use of Photos by Shawn
Contact: garlow.co@gmail.com

"The appearance of U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) visual information does not imply or constitute DoD endorsement."

Labels: , , , , , , , , , , ,